Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) — or sexually transmitted infections (STIs) — are generally acquired by sexual contact.
The bacteria, viruses or parasites that cause sexually transmitted diseases may pass from person to person in blood, semen, or vaginal and other bodily fluids.
Sometimes these infections can be transmitted non-sexually, such as from mothers to their infants during pregnancy or childbirth, or through blood transfusions or shared needles. STIs don’t always cause symptoms. It’s possible to contract sexually transmitted infections from people who seem perfectly healthy and may not even know they have an infection.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases In Bali Caused By Commercial Sex Workers In Low Priced Brothels
Prostitution has been an important factor in the spread of HIV infection in Asia. Interventions need to be developed to reduce the risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections in this area. To educate female sex workers about sexually transmitted infections and assess the impact of the educational intervention.
Commercial sex workers in low priced brothels in Bali have a high rate of genital infections, with lower rates of viral compared with bacterial infections. Genital cleansers, on a daily or after each intercourse schedule, are used routinely. Although genital cleansing after each intercourse was associated with fewer genital symptoms, the prevalence of STDs did not differ significantly based on this frequency, and the women’s knowledge of STDs and AIDS was less than that of women cleansing less often.
The effect of genital cleansing in general on STD and AIDS prevalence could not be assessed in this population owing to the lack of a non-cleansing cohort. Further study to elucidate the effect of vaginal cleansing practices on STD prevalence and resistance is needed.
We also discussed important health tips in Bali here https://www.hydromedicalbali.com/bali-travel-health-1-minute-scooter-accidents/
The Facts of STD
Here are below some facts about STD that we think you need to know:
- More than 25 different diseases can be transmitted sexually
More than 30 different bacteria, viruses and parasites are known to be transmitted through sexual contact. Eight of these pathogens are linked to the greatest incidence of sexually transmitted disease. Of these, 4 are currently curable: syphilis, gonorrhoeic, chlamydia and trichomoniasis. The other 4 are viral infections which are incurable: hepatitis B, herpes simplex virus (HSV or herpes), HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV). STIs are spread predominantly by sexual contact, including vaginal, anal and oral sex.
Some STIs can also be transmitted from mother-to-child during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding. A person can have an STI without showing symptoms of disease. Common symptoms of STIs include vaginal discharge, urethral discharge or burning in men, genital ulcers and abdominal pain.
- STD among older adults are on the rise
For older adults, life changes like divorce and finding new partners create potential for exposure. Once past childbearing years, older adults entering into new sexual relationships simply may not realize they should always use condoms — to avoid STDs rather than unplanned pregnancies.
- Some STDs – Including Chlamydia and gonorrhoea, which have no symptoms can affect fertility
An untreated STD can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), an infection that can scar the fallopian tubes. Such scarring can either prevent an egg from becoming fertilized or keep a fertilized egg from reaching the womb. STDs can compromise male fertility too, though more rarely.
- Condoms don’t provide 100 percent protection from the most common STD: genital herpes.
Condoms cover only the penis, but we see herpes sores in places outside the covered area, like on thighs and buttocks. And contact with any herpes sore — anywhere — can lead to infection. Receiving oral sex from someone who has a cold sore on the mouth can cause a genital herpes infection. So whether your partner is a man or a woman, you could still be exposed to herpes even if you don’t engage in genital sex. Although herpes cannot be cured, medications can reduce symptoms and make it less likely for an infected person to spread the disease.
- Any sexual activity — not just intercourse — can spread STDs, including one that can cause cancer.
Oral and anal sex and mutual masturbation can expose people to a number of STDs besides herpes, including chlamydia, syphilis and human papillomavirus (HPV). And it’s HPV that’s usually linked to cancer. Not only can HPV cause cervical cancer — it can also cause anal, throat and penile cancer. HPV vaccinations can help protect today’s tweens and teens from getting cancer in the future.
- Most people who have herpes have no, or very mild, symptoms.
That’s why doctors recommends that new partners both get tested. And make sure it’s a blood test. You can’t just look for sores; they may or may not be there at the time
Prevention of STD
When used correctly and consistently, condoms offer one of the most effective methods of protection against STDs, including HIV. Condoms also protect against unintended pregnancy in mutually consented sexual relationships. Although highly effective, condoms do not offer protection for STDs that cause extra-genital ulcers (i.e., syphilis or genital herpes). When possible, condoms should be used in all vaginal and anal sex. Safe and highly effective vaccines are available for 2 viral STDs: hepatitis B and HPV.
These vaccines have represented major advances in STD prevention. By the end of 2020, the HPV vaccine was introduced as part of routine immunization programmes in 111 countries, most of them high- and middle-income. HPV vaccination could prevent the deaths of millions of women over the next decade in low- and middle-income countries, where most cases of cervical cancer occur, if high (>80%) vaccination coverage of young women (ages 11–15) can be achieved.
Research to develop vaccines against herpes and HIV is advanced, with several vaccine candidates in early clinical development. There is mounting evidence suggesting that the vaccine to prevent meningitis (MemB) has cross-protection against gonorrhoea. More research into vaccines for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomoniasis are needed. Other biomedical interventions to prevent some STIs include adult male circumcision and microbicides.
Treatment of STD
Effective treatment is currently available for several STDs.
- Three bacterial STDs (chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis) and one parasitic STID (trichomoniasis) are generally curable with existing single-dose regimens of antibiotics.
- For herpes and HIV, the most effective medications available are antivirals that can modulate the course of the disease, though they cannot cure the disease.
- For hepatitis B, antiviral medications can help to fight the virus and slow damage to the liver.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of STDs – in particular gonorrhoea – to antibiotics has increased rapidly in recent years and has reduced treatment options. The Gonococcal AMR Surveillance Programme (GASP) has shown high rates of resistance to many antibiotics including quinolone resistance, increasing azithromycin resistance and emerging resistance of extended-spectrum cephalosporins, a last-line treatment, increasing the risk that gonorrhoea will be untreatable. AMR for other STDs, though less common, also exists, making prevention and prompt treatment critical.
Are STDs common in Indonesia?
Sexually transmitted diseases are a serious medical, social and cultural problem in Indonesia, but it is difficult to obtain population-based data on the their prevalence and incidence. Limited reports from some teaching and other hospitals are available. These reports do not represent the population epidemiologically, however, and cannot give a precise picture of STD prevalence for the country as a whole.
Available data show that gonorrhoea is the most common sexually transmitted disease, representing from 16 to 57.7 percent of all STDs. Non-gonococcal urethritis is the next most common, varying between 24 and 54 percent, followed by candidiasis trichomoniasis, syphilis and genital herpes.
STD Check-up Bali
If you are in Bali, you can do medical check-up for STD in Hydromedical Bali. We are staffed by some of Bali’s best Qualified Medical Professionals.
We provide a full-service healthcare and dental care, we offer the best treatment by providing personalized medical care for those travelling in Bali. Our expert medical care will ensure you can enjoy every kind of travelling experience; healthy, energized, beauty enhanced, free of dengue and rabies, and more.
Our IV Vitamin Therapy, a full range of Cosmetic Medicine and Dental care will keep you healthy and looking your best. Enjoy your Bali holiday, and while you’re here, take advantage of our reasonably priced Dental care services.
Always do safe protection for your self when you have the sexual engagement with anyone. Remember that, safety come first.