Yellow fever vaccine is a vaccine that protects against yellow fever. Yellow fever is a viral infection that occurs in Africa and South America. Most people begin to develop immunity within ten days of vaccination and 99 percent are protected within one month, and this appears to be lifelong. The vaccine can be used to control outbreaks of disease. It is given either by injection into a muscle or just under the skin.
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends routine immunization in all countries where the disease is common. This should typically occur between nine and twelve months of age. Those traveling to areas where the disease occurs should also be immunized. Additional doses after the first are generally not needed. The yellow fever vaccine is generally safe. This includes in those with HIV infection but without symptoms. Mild side effects may include headache, muscle pains, pain at the injection site, fever, and rash. Severe allergies occur in about eight per million doses, serious neurological problems occur in about four per million doses, and organ failure occurs in about three per million doses. It appears to be safe in pregnancy and is therefore recommended among those who will be potentially exposed. It should not be given to those with very poor immune function.
Yellow fever vaccine came into use in 1938. It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines. The vaccine is made from weakened yellow fever virus. Some countries require a yellow fever vaccination certificate before entry from a country where the disease is common. People most at risk of contracting the virus should be vaccinated. Woodcutters working in tropical areas should be particularly targeted for vaccination. Insecticides, protective clothing, and screening of houses are helpful, but not always sufficient for mosquito control; people should always use an insecticide spray while in certain areas. In affected areas, mosquito control methods have proven effective in decreasing the number of cases. Travellers should have the vaccine ten days prior to being in an endemic area.
On 17 May 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization (SAGE) announced that a ‘booster’ dose of yellow fever (YF) vaccine, ten years after a primary dose, is not necessary. Since yellow fever vaccination began in the 1930s, only 12 known cases of yellow fever post-vaccination have been identified, after 600 million doses have been dispensed. Evidence showed that among this small number of “vaccine failures”, all cases developed the disease within five years of vaccination. This demonstrates that immunity does not decrease with time. The most recognizable symptom of Yellow Fever is a yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), hence the name of the disease. Other symptoms may include: High fever, flu-like symptoms which may include muscle pains, headache, nausea and vomiting, and abdominal pain. About 15 percent of people who get yellow fever develop serious symptoms that can lead to bleeding, shock, organ failure, and sometimes death.
The World Health Organization recommends the vaccine between the ages of 9 and 12 months in areas where the disease is common. Anyone over the age of nine months who has not been previously immunized and either lives in or is traveling to an area where the disease occurs should also be immunized.
While there are not explicitly any vaccines required for travel to Indonesia, all foreign citizens are strongly advised to be up-to-date with the following routine vaccinations before their trip:
- Chickenpox (Varicella)
- Flu (influenza)
- Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR)
Additionally, travellers aged one year or older who are unvaccinated for Hepatitis A, as well as infants from 6 to 11 months, should receive the vaccine before traveling to Indonesia. Those planning to stay with friends and relatives in Indonesia or visit smaller cities or rural areas are also advised to receive a typhoid vaccination before traveling.
Entry restrictions for Indonesia also outline a number of other recommended vaccines for Indonesia based on where the traveller will be visiting in the country and the activities they plan to undertake. Some of these optional vaccines for travel to Indonesia include:
- Hepatitis B- recommended for all travellers who have not been vaccinated, regardless of age
- Japanese Encephalitis- vaccines for Indonesia against encephalitis are recommended for those planning to spend a period of one month or more in an area affected by the disease, or to undertake activities that increase the risk of infection, including hiking or camping. However, encephalitis vaccines are not needed for Bali or other major population centers in Indonesia.
- Rabies- recommended for visitors who may come into contact with dogs or wild animals, such as adventure travellers, veterinarians, or those staying in rural areas, including children.
- Yellow Fever- Required for all travellers over 9 months of age arriving from countries with a risk of yellow fever infection, as it is necessary for these visitors to present a certificate of yellow fever vaccination when entering Indonesia’s borders.
All foreign citizens are strongly advised to get any necessary vaccines before traveling to the country as, because Indonesia is a developing country, many healthcare facilities may not have the appropriate vaccinations available. If a foreign citizen does need to be vaccinated while in Indonesia, such as for rabies, they should arrange this as soon as possible to account for delays in treatment, e.g. if the nearest hospital has run out of the vaccine or does not stock it. While modern hospitals can be found in main tourist destinations such as Bali or Jakarta, rural healthcare facilities in Indonesia can be basic. Therefore, travellers who sustain serious injuries or infections may need to be medically evacuated to a neighbouring country, such as Singapore or Thailand.
All foreign citizens are strongly advised to have up-to-date travel insurance before visiting Indonesia, which includes medical evacuation in the case of emergency. Medical insurance is also important because those who are not fully covered for treatment in hospitals in Jakarta or Bali may face expensive medical bills that will have to be paid before the traveller may leave the country. If you need medical assistance in Bali, especially to get the yellow fever vaccine, you can contact HYDRO MEDICAL Bali. HYDRO MEDICAL is a fully equipped and trusted medical practice in Bali. Offering vaccination to protect you against the risk of the yellow fever disease. Administered by experienced nursing professional under doctor consultation. You’ll experience our painless needle procedure. Our expert English speaking medical team will ensure you are in safe and caring hands throughout your treatment with us. We also ready to help to claiming your medical insurance so you will be able to get the shot covered. We strive to take care of you and the ones you love. We are waiting for your visit to our clinic.