A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins.
The agent stimulates the body’s immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and to further recognize and destroy any of the microorganisms associated with that agent that it may encounter in the future.
Vaccines can be prophylactic (to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or “wild” pathogen), or therapeutic (e.g., vaccines against cancer, which are being investigated).
Type of vaccine
The vaccine is made using several different processes. This vaccine is published based on the type of antigen contained in it in the vaccine containing the licensed virus; animals or viruses that are inactive or killed; inactive poisons (for bacterial diseases where poisons are produced by bacteria, and not the bacteria itself); or only pathogenic segments (including subunits and conjugate vaccines).
- Live vaccine released
A licensed live vaccine (a directly attenuated vaccine) contains live and licensed microorganisms that produce limited infections that are sufficient to facilitate an immune response, but not enough to cause actual disease. To achieve this weakness, disease-causing agents are repeatedly cultured in a foreign language. Subsequently a less virulent mutant will be adjusted to the host, and this mutant can be used for vaccination. Examples of live vaccines: oral polio vaccine (OPV), measles (measles), rotavirus, yellow fever (yellow fever).
- Inactivated vaccine
Killed or inactivated vaccines work with the help of various chemical, radiation or heat methods. The pathogen is inactive so that it cannot replicate at the host and is used as a vaccination agent. Bacterial vaccines generally use dead microorganisms, whereas virus vaccines consist of inactive agents. Examples of vaccines that have been killed: the whole-cell pertussis vaccine and inactivated polio virus (IPV).
- Toxoid vaccine
Toxoid vaccine means a vaccine containing toxoid or toxin that has been activated. Examples of toxoid vaccines include tetanus toxoid and diphtheria toxoid.
- Subunit vaccine
Subunit vaccines contain pure antigens rather than using all microorganisms. Purified antigens can be toxoid, subcellular fragments, or surface molecules, which are transported by different carriers. The immune response to the subunit vaccine differs based on the antigen used. Protein antigens usually cause T cell-dependent adaptive immune responses, whereas polysaccharide antigens produce T-cell-independent responses. Examples of subunit vaccines: acellular pertussis (aP), Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib), pneumococcal (PCV-7, PCV-10, PCV-13), and hepatitis B (HepB).
- Conjugate vaccine
A conjugated vaccine can be defined as a subunit vaccine subunit because a protein carrier is used to carry polysaccharide-based antigens.
- Vaccine immunology
Vaccines that have been inserted into the body can stimulate the rise of the immune system and the final stage is the formation of antibodies and memory cells. This process involves the innate immune system and the adaptive immune system. Incoming antigens will be captured by dendritic cells and undergo antigen processing. Then a chain reaction occurs which results in helper cells and memory cells. Helper cells in this case induce B cell activation in producing antibodies.
The vaccine is made through a three step process, namely:
- Antigen produced
The virus grows in primary cells, one of which is in a chicken egg for influenza vaccine.
- Antingen is isolated
Antigens are isolated from cells that will be used to make vaccines.
- Add the adjuvant, stabilizers and preservatives
The adjuvant vaccine functions to increase the immune response to antigens. Stabilizers function to increase the storage life of vaccines, and preservatives make it possible to use multi-dose bottles in vaccines.
Rabies vaccine for humans is important to get because this virus is deadly as a result of its work directly attacking the nervous system and brain.
Rabies is an infection caused by a virus that is usually transmitted through bites or scratches from infected animals.
Rabies can be found throughout the world, especially in Asia, Africa, Central and South America. Rabies infection generally leads to death as soon as symptoms appear. Every year, more than 50,000 deaths occur due to the Rabies virus.
However, this disease can be prevented properly by administering a rabies vaccine to humans. Vaccines can also be useful to prevent the development of infections for people who have been exposed to the virus.
Type of rabies vaccine for humans
There are two types of rabies vaccines for humans given in two different situations with their own uses in each situation, including:
- 1. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)
PrEP vaccine is a rabies vaccine for humans given before exposure to the virus to people who are at risk of rabies such as:
- laboratory staff working with the rabies virus;
- animal and wildlife handling officer;
- people traveling to risky countries or regions;
PrPP vaccine is also recommended for children because they are more vulnerable targets for rabies bites or scratches.
Vaccination is done 3 times where the second dose is given 7 days after the first dose, then the third dose is given 21-28 days after the first dose.
For rabies researchers or people who are frequently exposed to the rabies virus repeatedly, immune testing is recommended to be held regularly. In addition, additional doses can be given as needed.
- Post Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP)
PEP is a rabies vaccine for humans given to people who have been exposed to the virus to prevent the development of rabies becoming more severe. Anyone who is bitten or scratched by animals that might be affected by rabies, should immediately get treatment for injuries and PEP vaccinations.
A person who has been exposed and has never received a rabies vaccine must get at least 4 doses with the following conditions:
- The first dose is given as soon as possible;
- Subsequent doses on days 3, 7, and 14;
- Rabies Immune Globulin injection must be given together with the first dose;
As for people who have been vaccinated before, they should get 2 doses of rabies vaccine.
The first dose is given immediately after exposure to the virus then the second dose will be given three days afterwards.
Human Cells Are Used For Development and Manufacture of Vaccines
Since the first year vaccine manufacturers began making vaccines using cowpox virus in the late 1880s, animals or animals have been widely used to produce vaccines for humans. Since then, until the middle of the 20th century, almost all vaccines developed will use animals, whether by breeding pathogenic germs in live animals or by using animal cells.
It is not ideal to make a vaccine using animals, especially by using live animals, meduga have many vaccines and anti-toxins that have been successfully developed and made in this way. Animals for research are expensive and require very close supervision, both for health care and also to maintain the defense of this vaccine research.
Then these live animals might also carry or carry very large bacteria or viruses that will make contamination or contamination of vaccine-making materials, such as the polio vaccine at the turn of the 20th century, which was made from black elephant cells, later found to find a monkey virus SV40 (Simian Virus 40), and fortunately this SV40 virus is harmless to humans.
Or other stories such as the chickenpox virus can not grow well in animal cells, so it is necessary to find another ideal breeding media to grow the chickenpox virus.
Even if the vaccine manufacture only uses material products from animals not with live animals, such as the breeding of viruses for influenza vaccines in chicken eggs – making these vaccines can be delayed or hampered if the availability of chicken eggs is disrupted, for example, a disease that will disturb the chicken population layer, there will be a disruption to the production and supply of chicken eggs for the manufacture of influenza vaccines, so that there will be a serious disruption to the availability of seasonal influenza vaccine.
There is a false perception that influenza vaccines can be produced much more quickly if the influenza antigen virus is grown and grown in cell culture material rather than propagated in a chicken egg embryo. The fact is that the time required is almost the same between the two methods, it’s just that with the culture in the cell, there is no problem about the availability of raw materials such as chicken eggs.
For this reason or other reasons, making a vaccine using propagation techniques with human cell tissue is a significant advance in the development of vaccine manufacturing.
How Does the Cell Breeding Network Work?
Cell culture tissue is the growth and development of cells in the culture cup, often with growth media such as collagen. The first or primary cell culture, taken directly from living tissue, so that it can contain various types of cells, such as fibroblast cell types, epithelial tissue cells, or endothelial cells, and other cell types.
Cell strain, is the result of tissue cell culture that only consists of one type of cell. This is obtained by taking the cell culture of the original or primary cell and multiplying it many times, until there is only one type of cell that we want. Or you can also isolate various types of cells, until you get just one type of cell you want; that is by turning these primary tissue cultures with a centrifuge, which can separate cells of small weight from large cells. If only one type of cell remains desirable, scientists can develop it into a homogeneous cell line, which allows continuous observation and control, this is not possible with primary tissue culture that still contains various cell types